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May 1, 1900
–The Grand Palais opens as part of the Universal Exposition of 1900. Built in the Beaux-Arts style of architecture, the Grand Palais was the last of the large glass structures inspired by London’s Crystal Palace. Such buildings were designed to provide enough light for exhibitions prior to electricity. From 1900 to 1957, the Grand Palais hosted art exhibitions, as well as numerous shows, including the first major Henri Matisse retrospective following his death. The Palais served as a military hospital during World War I, and was used by the Nazis during the occupation of France. The building was closed for extensive repairs from 1993 until 2007. Today, the Palais houses the Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, and the House of Chanel hosts many of its fashion shows there.
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May 2, 1729–Catherine the Great (Catherine II), Empress of Russia (1762-1796), is born Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg in Stettin, Pomerania, German Kingdom of Prussia. She was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 1762 until her death in 1796. She came to power following a coup d'état when her husband, Peter III, was assassinated. Russia was revitalized under her reign, growing larger and stronger than ever and becoming recognized as one of the great powers of Europe. The period of Catherine the Great's rule, the Catherinian Era, is often considered the Golden Age of the Russian Empire and the Russian nobility.
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May 3, 1932–Film historian and television host, Robert (John) Osborne, is born in Colfax, Washington. He is well known for his appearances on Turner Classic Movies (TCM), introducing prime time films. Prior to TCM, Osborne had been a host on The Movie Channel. In 1977, Osborne began his long-standing stint as a columnist for The Hollywood Reporter. The following year, he published 50 Golden Years of Oscar, which won the 1979 National Film Book award. Having joined the Los Angeles Film Critics Association, he was elected its President in 1981, a position he would be re-elected to for the next two years.
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May 4, 1626–Dutch explorer, Peter Minuit, arrives in New Netherland (present-day Manhattan Island) aboard the See Meeuw. He becomes director-general of New Netherlands, and the Indians sell Manhattan Island for $24 in cloth and buttons (present-day $1050). Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive on the globe, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed $3 trillion in 2013; median residential property sale prices in Manhattan approximated $1,500 per square foot; and Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at $3,000 per square foot. Manhattan is often described as the cultural, financial, media, and entertainment capital of the world. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers; several small adjacent islands; and Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River.
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May 5, 1893–The first great crash on the New York Stock Exchange causes a depression. It is called the “Panic of 1983.” Stock prices plummet, major railroads go into receivership, 15,000 businesses go bankrupt, and 15 to 20 percent of the work force becomes unemployed. Within seven months, over 600 banks had closed. Soup kitchens were opened to help feed the destitute. Facing starvation, people chopped wood, broke rocks, and sewed by hand with needle and thread in exchange for food. In some cases, women resorted to prostitution to feed their families. President Grover Cleveland, a Democrat, was blamed for the depression. The crash deeply affected every sector of the economy, and produced political upheaval that led to the realigning election of 1896, and the presidency of William McKinley and the largest Republican gains in history.
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May 6, 1915–Actor and film director, (George) Orson Welles, is born in Kenosha, Wisconsin. A child prodigy, he made his stage debut at the Gate Theater in Dublin, Ireland, at the age of 16. Three years later, he was acting on Broadway. He directed a version of H.G. Wells's The War of the Worlds for radio in 1938, which was so realistic it caused a nationwide panic. Welles' first motion picture was Citizen Kane, made in 1941, when he was 25 years old. His other films include The Magnificent Ambersons, The Stranger, The Lady from Shanghai, Macbeth, Othello, Mr. Arkadin, Touch of Evil, The Trial, Chimes at Midnight, and The Immortal Story. He was married to actress, Rita Hayworth.
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May 7, 2013–Film visual effects creator, Ray Harryhausen, dies in London, England, at age 92. Harryhausen's techniques included the use of rudimentary models and painstaking shot-by-shot animation to bring his films to life. His films include Mighty Joe Young, The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms, It Came from Beneath the Sea, Earth vs. the Flying Saucers, 20 Million Miles to Earth, The 7th Voyage of Sinbad, Mysterious Island, Jason and the Argonauts, First Men in the Moon, One Million Years B.C., The Valley of Gwangi, The Golden Voyage of Sinbad, and The Clash of Titans.
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May 8, 1929–Psychic and author, (Dorothy) Jane Roberts, is born in Saratoga Springs, New York. She was a spirit medium, who claimed to channel an energy personality who called himself "Seth." Her publication of the Seth texts, known as the "Seth Material," established her as one of the preeminent figures in the world of paranormal phenomena. Seth's effect upon New Age thinkers has been profound. Testimonials from some of the most notable thinkers and writers within the movement (Marianne Williamson, Deepak Chopra, Shakti Gawain, Dan Millman, Louise Hay, Richard Bach, and others), express the effect the Seth Material had upon their own awakening. Jane Roberts brought forth one of the most widespread set of spiritual teachings during the 1970s. Her books include The Seth Material, Seth Speaks: The Eternal Validity of the Soul, The Nature of Personal Reality, and Adventures in Consciousness: An Introduction to Aspect Psychology.
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May 9, 1662–The figure who later became Mr. Punch, of Punch and Judy, makes his first recorded appearance in England. Punch and Judy is a traditional, popular, and usually very violent puppet show featuring Pulcinella (Mr. Punch) and his wife Judy. The performance consists of a sequence of short scenes, each depicting an interaction between two characters, most typically Mr. Punch and one other character (who usually falls victim to Mr. Punch's club). It is often associated with traditional British seaside culture.
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May 10, 2013–One World Trade Center becomes the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere. The current building was dubbed the "Freedom Tower" during initial basework on the main building of the new World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The 104-story structure shares a numeric name with the northern Twin Tower of the original World Trade Center, which was destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. When the final component of the skyscraper's spire was installed, it made the building, including its spire, reach a total height of 1,776 feet: its height in feet is a deliberate reference to the year when the United States Declaration of Independence was signed.
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May 11, 1946–The first packages from the Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe (CARE), arrive in Europe at Le Havre, France. Large numbers of people were at risk of starvation in the wake of World War II, and the organization obtained permission from the United States government to send U.S. Army surplus "10-in-1" food parcels to Europe. Americans were given the opportunity to purchase a CARE Package for $10 to send to friends or relatives. The first CARE packages contained: one pound of beef in broth, one pound of steak and kidneys, 8 ounces of liver loaf, 8 ounces of corned beef, 12 ounces of luncheon loaf (like Spam), 8 ounces of bacon, 2 pounds of margarine, one pound of lard, one pound of fruit preserves, one pound of honey, one pound of raisins, one pound of chocolate, 2 pounds of sugar, 8 ounces of egg powder, 2 pounds of whole-milk powder, and 2 pounds of coffee. Packages were guaranteed to arrive within four months. Even when a donor did not know an address of a beneficiary, CARE would find that person using the last address known. The CARE package thus became a "missing person" service in the chaos following World War II. Although "CARE Package" is a registered trademark, the term has since been widely adopted as a generic term for a parcel of food or supplies sent for relief or comfort purposes.
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May 12, 1878–Ann Bassett is born Anna M. Bassett in Moffat County, Colorado. She also known as Queen Ann Bassett and was a prominent female rancher of the Old West with her sister, Josie Bassett, who was an associate of a number of outlaws, particularly Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch. Ann Bassett has often been alleged to have actually been Etta Place, the girlfriend of the Sundance Kid, who mysteriously disappeared from all public records in 1909, not long after his death. According to this speculation, Bassett led a double life, dating Cassidy as Ann Bassett, and dating the Sundance Kid as Etta Place. This would mean that she was involved with both outlaws at the same time, apparently with their full knowledge, but by 1900, when in their company, she simply went by the name of Etta Place. Pinkerton reports give almost identical descriptions of both women, listing both with classic good looks, articulate speech and intelligence, the same hair color, describing both as being good with a rifle and riding a horse, and both as being promiscuous with both having taken several lovers. When comparing the best legitimate photograph of Place with the best photograph of Bassett, the two women could be mistaken for one another. After conducting tests, Dr. Thomas G. Kyle of the Computer Research Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory, concluded that there could be no reasonable doubt they were the same person.
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May 13, 1917–Three peasant children report seeing the Blessed Virgin Mary near Fátima, Portugal. The children were Lúcia Santos and her cousins, Jacinta and Francisco Marto. They said they were visited three times by an apparition of an angel, who identified himself as the "Angel of Peace" and "Angel of Portugal," who taught them prayers, to make sacrifices, and to spend time in adoration of the Lord. Starting in May of 1917, apparitions of the Virgin Mary began to appear, who the children described as "the Lady more brilliant than the Sun." In the following months, thousands of people flocked to Fátima and nearby Aljustrel, drawn by reports of visions and miracles. In the 1930s, the published memoirs of Lúcia Santos revealed two secrets that she claimed came from the Virgin, while the third secret was to be revealed by the Catholic Church in 1960. The controversial events at Fátima gained fame due partly to elements of the secrets, prophecy, and eschatological revelations allegedly related to World War II and possibly more global wars in the future, particularly the Virgin's alleged request for the Consecration of Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Bishop José da Silva declared the miracle "worthy of belief" on October 13, 1930, permitting "officially the cult of Our Lady of Fatima" within the Catholic Church. The event is commemorated each year on that same date.
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May 14, 1998–Singer and actor, Frank Sinatra, dies of a heart attack at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Beverly Hills, California, at age 82. The night after Sinatra's death, the lights on the Empire State Building in New York City were turned blue. Also right after Sinatra's death, the lights on the Las Vegas Strip were dimmed in his honor. Beginning his musical career in the Swing Era as a boy singer with Harry James and Tommy Dorsey, Sinatra found success as a solo artist from the early to mid-1940s after being signed by Columbia Records in 1943. Being the idol of the teenage "bobby soxers," he released his first album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, in 1946. His many hit songs include All or Nothing At All, Night and Day, I’ve Got the World on a String, Young at Heart, Love and Marriage, All the Way, Witchcraft, High Hopes, My Kind of Town, It Was a Very Good Year, Strangers in the Night, Summer Wind, That’s Life, and My Way. Sinatra turned to acting, first in Hollywood musicals, and later in dramatic roles. He appeared in the films Anchors Aweigh, Take Me Out to the Ball Game, On the Town, Meet Danny Wilson, From Here to Eternity, Young at Heart, Suddenly, The Man with the Golden Arm, Guys and Dolls, The Tender Trap, High Society, Pal Joey, Some Came Running, A Hole on the Head, Ocean’s Eleven, The Manchurian Candidate, Robin and the 7 Hoods, and Tony Rome.
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May 15, 1923–American fashion and portrait photographer, Richard Avedon, is born in New York. New York. Avedon would revolutionize a formerly staid fashion photography style by photographing models full of emotion and movement. In the 1960s, he did the same for journalism and portraiture. He brought civil rights workers, politicians, and cultural dissidents into the studio for formal portraits. Avedon photographed The Beatles in 1967, and some of those images were transformed into the psychedelic pix that were published in Look magazine as some of the first major rock posters. Avedon's portrait book, In the American West, is a collection of 125 large format photographs of cowboys, miners, farm workers, and others who caught his eye during a six-year project commissioned by the Amon Carter Museum in Fort Worth, Texas. The book is considered an important opus in 20th century portrait photography, and is Avedon's masterwork.
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May 16, 1929–The 1st Annual Academy Awards announces its winners. Best Picture: Wings; Best Actor: Emil Jannings for The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh; Best Actress: Janet Gaynor for Seventh Heaven, Street Angel, and Sunrise–A Song of Two Humans; Best Director: Frank Borzage for Seventh Heaven; Best Director Comedy: Lewis Milestone for Two Arabian Knights. The ceremonies are held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Hollywood, California. The host is Douglas Fairbanks. The event is a private dinner, tickets are $5.00, and 270 people attend. The presentation ceremony lasts 15 minutes. This is the only Academy Awards ceremony not to be broadcast either on radio or television.
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May 17, 1883–Buffalo Bill Cody's first "Wild West Show" premieres in Omaha, Nebraska. "Buffalo Bill's Wild West" was a circus-like attraction that toured annually. Contrary to the popular misconception, the word “show” was not a part of the original title. With his show, Cody traveled throughout the United States and Europe. In 1893, Cody changed the title to “Buffalo Bill's Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World.” The show began with a parade on horseback, with participants from horse-culture groups that included American and other military, cowboys, American Indians, and performers from all over the world in their best attire. Turks, Gauchos, Arabs, Mongols, and Georgians displayed their distinctive horses and colorful costumes. Visitors would see main events, feats of skill, staged races, and sideshows. Many historical western figures participated in the show: for example, Sitting Bull appeared with a band of 20 of his braves. Cody's headline performers were well known in their own right, such as Annie Oakley and Calamity Jane. Performers re-enacted the riding of the Pony Express, Indian attacks on wagon trains, and stagecoach robberies. The finale was typically a portrayal of an Indian attack on a settler's cabin. Cody would ride in with an entourage of cowboys to defend a settler and his family. Buffalo Bill’s colorful show influenced many 20th-century portrayals of the West in cinema and literature.
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May 18, 1897–Film director, Frank Capra, is born Francesco Rosario Capra in Bisacquino, Sicily, Kingdom of Italy. He moved with his family to California when he was just six years old. His rags-to-riches story has led film historians to consider him the "American dream personified." He got into the movie business working as a prop man, a film editor, and a gag writer, then he started directing pictures. Capra became one of America's most influential directors during the 1930s, winning three Oscars from his six nominations as Best Director, along with three other Oscar wins from nine nominations in other categories. Outside of directing, Capra was active in the film industry, engaging in various political and social issues. He served as President of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences, worked alongside the Screenwriters Guild, and was head of the Directors Guild of America. His films include Lady for a Day, It Happened One Night, Mr. Deeds Goes to Town, Lost Horizon, You Can’t Take It with You, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Meet John Doe, Arsenic and Old Lace, It’s a Wonderful Life, State of the Union, A Hold in the Head, and Pocketful of Miracles.
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May 19, 1962–A birthday salute to President John F. Kennedy takes place at Madison Square Garden in New York. The highlight is Marilyn Monroe's infamous rendition of Happy Birthday. The gown she wore had over 2,500 rhinestones and was designed by Jean Louis. In 1999, the gown sold at auction in New York for $1.26 million.
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May 20, 1908–Actor, James (Maitland) Stewart, is born in Indiana, Pennsylvania. A major Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) contract player, Stewart was known for his distinctive drawl and down-to-earth persona, which helped him often portray American middle-class men struggling in crisis. Many of the films he starred in have become enduring classics. In 1999, Stewart was named the third greatest male screen legend of the Golden Age of Hollywood by the American Film Institute (behind Humphrey Bogart and Cary Grant). Stewart also had a noted military career and was a World War II and Vietnam War veteran and pilot, who rose to the rank of Brigadier General in the United States Air Force Reserve, becoming the highest-ranking actor in military history. He appeared in the films The Gorgeous Hussy, Vivacious Lady, You Can’t Take It With You, Made for Each Other, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Destry Rides Again, The Shop Around the Corner, The Philadelphia Story, Pot o’ Gold, It’s a Wonderful Life, Call Northside 777, Rope, The Stratton Story, Winchester ‘73, Broken Arrow, Harvey, The Greatest Show on Earth, The Naked Spur, The Glenn Miller Story, Rear Window, The Man Who Knew Too Much, The Spirit of St. Louis, Vertigo, Bell, Book and Candle, Anatomy of a Murder, The FBI Story, Two Rode Together, Mr. Hobbs Takes Vacation, How the West Was Won, Cheyenne Autumn, Shenandoah, The Flight of the Phoenix, The Cheyenne Social Club, and The Shootist.
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May 21, 1999All My Children soap opera star, Susan Lucci, finally wins a Daytime Emmy after being nominated 19 times, the longest period of unsuccessful nominations in television history. When presenter Shemar Moore announced Lucci's name, stating "the streak is over," the audience erupted in a standing ovation, lasting several minutes. As Lucci took to the stage, cameras caught All My Children co-stars Kelly Ripa and Marcy Walker openly weeping. When Lucci did not win the award after several consecutive nominations, her image in the media began to be lampooned, as she became notoriously synonymous with never winning an Emmy. Lucci is best known for appearing as Erica Kane on All My Children from January 16, 1970 to September 23, 2011. When ABC cancelled All My Children on April 14, 2011, after 41 years on the air, Lucci said in an interview: "It's been a fantastic journey. I've loved playing Erica Kane and working with Agnes Nixon and all the incredible people involved with All My Children. I'm looking forward to all kinds of new and exciting opportunities."
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May 22, 1907–Actor and director, Laurence Olivier, is born Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier in Surrey, England. His father was a strict Anglican clergyman, but when he saw that the boy had talent, he made him stay in England and study to become an actor. Olivier made his stage debut playing Brutus at a choir school in London. Along with his contemporaries, Ralph Richardson and John Gielgud, he dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century. He appeared in the films Westward Passage, As You Like It, Wuthering Heights, Rebecca, Pride and Prejudice, That Hamilton Woman, This Happy Breed, Henry V, Hamlet, The Beggar’s Opera, Richard III, The Prince and Showgirl, The Entertainer, Spartacus, Term of Trial, Bunny Lake is Missing, Othello, Romeo and Juliet, The Shoes of the Fisherman, Nicholas and Alexandra, Sleuth, The Rehearsal, Marathon Man, A Bridge Too Far, The Boys from Brazil, A Little Romance, and The Jazz Singer. He was married to actresses, Vivian Leigh and Joan Plowright.
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May 23, 1903–The first automobile to be driven across the United States leaves San Francisco, California, as the result of a $50 bet made by Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson. He was in the car with his mechanic, Sewall K. Crocker, in a 1903 20-horsepower Winton. They had three major breakdowns before they managed to get over the Rocky Mountains and across the plains to Omaha; it had taken them 51 days to get there from San Francisco. Beyond Omaha the roads were much better: They made it to New York in 12 more days, completing the crossing in 63 days, 19 of them spent waiting for parts. Through much of their journey, the Winton was the first car that many of the people along the way had ever seen.
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May 24, 1819–Alexandrina Victoria, Queen of Great Britain (1837-1901), is born at Kensington Palace, London, England. She would reign for 63 years, holding the record for the longest-reigning queen in the world. The duration of her reign is called the Victorian era, which was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, along with a great expansion of the British Empire.
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May 25, 1977Star Wars is released in theaters throughout America, and quickly becomes a worldwide pop culture phenomenon. Star Wars is a epic space opera franchise, centered on a film series created by director, George Lucas. It depicts the adventures of various characters "a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away." The series has spawned an extensive media franchise including books, television series, computer and video games, and comic books, all of which take place within the same continuity as the films, resulting in significant development of the series's fictional universe, with the non-canonical works falling under the defunct Star Wars Legends label. Star Wars also holds a Guinness World Records title for the most successful film merchandising franchise. In 2015, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at $42 billion, making it the second highest-grossing media franchise of all time. Original cast members of Star Wars were Mark Hamill (as Luke Skywalker), Carrie Fisher (as Princess Leia), Harrison Ford (as Han Solo), Alec Guinness (as Jedi Knight Obi-Wan Kenobi), Peter Meyhew (as Chewbacca), Anthony Daniels (as C-3PO), Kenny Baker (as R2-D2), and David Prowse with the voice of James Earl Jones (as Darth Vader).
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May 26, 1969–John Lennon and Yoko Ono begin their second Bed-In for Peace at Montreal, Canada's Queen Elizabeth Hotel (Suite 1742). The entire proceedings are filmed and recorded. Interviews held during the Bed-In are filmed for an unreleased movie, The Way It Is, portions of which are included in 1988's John Lennon: Imagine, and 1990's home video release John & Yoko: The Bed-In. The song Give Peace a Chance will be recorded during the Bed-In. Scores of American journalists and photographers beseige the hotel for a chance to meet the Lennons, who also play host to visiting musicians, writers, and counter-culture personalities.
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May 27, 1937–The Golden Gate Bridge opens in San Francisco, California, and 200,000 people cross it on its first day. It had taken four years, four months, and 22 days to complete. The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate strait, the one-mile-wide, one-point-seven-mile-long channel between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The structure links the city of San Francisco (the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula) to Marin County, carrying both U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1 across the strait. The bridge is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco and America. It has been declared one of the Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The Frommer's travel guide describes the Golden Gate Bridge as "possibly the most beautiful, and certainly the most photographed, bridge in the world." Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay. A ferry service began as early as 1820, with a regularly scheduled service beginning in the 1840s.
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May 28, 2010–Luna Park opens in Coney Island, New York. It is the first new amusement park to be built in Coney Island in over 40 years, complete with 19 brand new rides, six games, five food kiosks, and a retail location. During its first season, Luna Park delighted 450,000 visitors with over 1.7 million rides. In an effort to revitalize the historic Coney Island to its once glorious past, the City of New York, under the leadership of the Bloomberg administration, purchase 6.2 acres of land in November 2009 and quickly put out a request for proposals, welcoming bidders to submit their proposal for a state-of-the-art facility that would be complete by Spring of 2010.
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May 29, 1917–John Fitzgerald Kennedy is born in Brookline, Massachusetts. Commonly referred to by his initials JFK, he was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. Kennedy served at the height of the Cold War, and much of his presidency focused on managing relations with the Soviet Union. In April 1961, he authorized a failed joint-CIA attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro in the Bay of Pigs Invasion. In October 1962, U.S. spy planes discovered that Soviet missile bases had been deployed in Cuba: the resulting period of tensions, termed the Cuban Missile Crisis, nearly resulted in the breakout of a global thermonuclear conflict. He was a member of the Democratic Party who represented Massachusetts in the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate prior to becoming president. His parents were Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. His brothers were Robert F. Kennedy and Edward “Teddy” Kennedy. He was married to Jacqueline Bouvier and their children were John F. Kennedy, Jr. and Caroline Kennedy.
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May 30, 1431–Condemned heretic, Joan of Arc, is burned at the stake in Rouen, France, at age 19. Joan said she received visions of the Archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine of Alexandria, instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. On May 23, 1430, she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction, which was allied with the English. She was later handed over to the English and put on trial by the pro-English Bishop of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon on a variety of charges and was declared guilty. In 1456, an inquisitorial court, authorized by Pope Callixtus III, examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, and declared her a martyr. She was beatified in 1909, and canonized in 1920. Joan of Arc is one of the nine secondary patron saints of France, along with Saint Denis, Saint Martin of Tours, Saint Louis, Saint Michael, Saint Rémi, Saint Petronilla, Saint Radegund, and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux.
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May 31, 1996–Timothy Leary, the counterculture guru of the 1960s, dies of cancer quietly in his sleep, at age 75. He urged a generation of American youth to use the drug LSD, so that they could “turn on, tune in, and drop out.” In his later years, Leary had turned his attention to computer science and the Internet, and he had intended to commit suicide as a live online event. In his younger years, he was a psychologist and writer known for advocating the exploration of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs under controlled conditions. Leary conducted experiments under the Harvard Psilocybin Project during American legality of LSD and psilocybin, resulting in the Concord Prison Experiment and the Marsh Chapel Experiment. Leary believed that LSD showed potential for therapeutic use in psychiatry. He used LSD himself and developed a philosophy of mind expansion and personal truth through the drug. During the 1960s and 1970s, he was arrested often enough to see the inside of 36 different prisons worldwide. President Richard Nixon once described Leary as "the most dangerous man in America."
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PHOTOS FROM TOP TO BOTTOM: The Grand Palais; Catherine the Great; Robert Osborne; Manhattan Island; Orson Welles; Ray Harryhausen; Jane Roberts; One World Trade Center; Ann Bassett; the Blessed Virgin Mary appearing near Fátima, Portugal; Frank Sinatra; Richard Avedon; a poster for Buffalo Bill's Wild West; Frank Capra; James Stewart; Susan Lucci; Laurence Olivier; Queen Victoria; 1977 promotion for Star Wars; John Lennon and Yoko Ono's second Bed-In for Peace in Montreal, Canada; the Golden Gate Bridge on opening day; Luna Park in Coney Island, New York; John F. Kennedy; Joan of Arc; and Timothy Leary.